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    Kita di indonesia bisa belajar dari gerakan konsumen di amerika serikat dan negara maju lainnya . sejauh ekonomi kita sudah tumbuh dan daya beli masyarakat semakin tinggi , peranan gerakan konsumen harus semakin bertambah pula . undang – undang tentang perlindungan konsumen (1999) yang disebut diatas merupakan selangkah maju yang menggembirakan . pemerintah sepatutnya mendukung terus gerakan konsumen itu , tapi inisiatif dan pelaksanaan mestinya berasal dari komsumen sendiri yang mengorganisasikan dirinya dalam bentuk lembaga swadaya masyarakat .
    Tanggung jawab bisnis untuk menyediakan produk yang aman .
    Disini produsen harus menjamin bahwa produknya pada sa’at pembelian dalam keada’an prima sehingga biosa dipakai dengan aman . jadi , terhadap suatu produk yang baru dibeli dan dipakai , produsen maupun konsumen masing – masing mempunyai tanggung jawab .
    Untuk mendasarkan tanggung jawab produsen , telah dikemukakan 3 teori yang mendukung nuansa yang berbeda : teori kontrak , teori perhatian semestinya dan teori biaya sosial .
    1. Teori kontrak
    Pandangan kontrak ini sejalan dengan pepatah romawi kuno yang berbunyi caveat emptor “hendaknya si pembeli behati – hati” . senagaimana sebelum menandatangani sebuah kontrak , kita harus membaca dengan teliti seluruh teksnya termasuk huruf – huruf terkecil sekalipun , demikian sipembeli dengan hati – hati harus mempelajari keada’an produk serta ciri – cirinya . sebelum dengan membayar ia menjadi pemiliknya . transaksi jual beli harus dijalankan sesuai dengan apa yang tertera dlam kontrak itu dan hak pembeli maupun kewajiban penjual memperoleh dasarnya dari situ.

    Tetapi tudak bisa dikatakan juga bahwa hubungan produsen – konsumen , selalu dan seluruhnya berlangsung dalam kerangka kontrak . karena itu pandangan kontrak dari beberapa segi tidak memuaskan juga terutama ada 3 keberatan berikut terhadap pandangan ini .
    a. Teori kontrak mengandalkan bahwa produsen dan konsumen berada pada taraf yang sama . tetapi pada kenyata’annya tidak terdapat persamaan antara produsen – konsumen . khususnya dalam konteks bisnis modern .
    b. Kritikl kedua menegaskan bahwa teori kontrak mengandalkan hubungan langsung antara produsen dan konsumen . padahal konsumen pada kenyata’annya jarang sekali berhubungan langsung dengan produsen .
    c. Konsepsi kontrak tidak cukup untuk melindungi konsumen dengan baik . kalau perlindungan terhadap konsumen hanya tergantung pada ketentuan dalam kontrak maka bisa terjadi juga bahwa konsumen terlkanjur menyetujui kontrak jual beli . padahal disitu tidak terjamin bahwa produk bisa diandalkan , akan berumur lama , akan bersifat aman n dan sebagainya . bila konsumen dengan “bebas” mengadakan kontrak jual beli hal itu belum berarti juga bahwa perlindungan konsumen terlaksana .
    2. Teri perhatian semetinya
    Pandangan “perhatian semestinya” ini tidak memfokuskan kontrak atau persetujuan antara konsumen dan produsen , melainkan terutama kualitas produk serta tanggung jawab produsen . karena itu tekanannya bukan dari segi hukum saja , melainkan dalam etika dalam arti luas . norma dasar yang melandasi pandangan ini adalah bahwa seseorang tidak boleh merugikan orang lain dengan kegiatannya .
    3. Teori biaya sosial
    Teori biaya sosila merupakan versi yang paling ekstrim dari senboyan caveat venditor . walaupun teori ini paling menguntungkan bagi konsumen , rupanya sulit juga mempertahankan . kritik yang dikemukakan dalam teori ini , bisa disingkatkan sebagao berikut : teori biaya soaial tampaknya kurang adil , karena menganggap orang bertanggung jawab atas hal – hal yang tidak diketahui atau tidak dihindarkan . menurut keada’an kompensatoris orang yang bertanggung jawab atas akibat perbuatan yang diketahui dapat terjadi dan bisa dicegah olehnya .
    Tanggung jawab bisnis lainnya terhadap konsumen
    Selain harus menjamin keamanan produk , bisnis juga mempumyai kewajiban lain terhadap konsumen . disini kita menyoroti tiga kewajiban moral lain yang masing – masing berkaitan dengan kualitas produk , harganya , dan pemberian label serta pengemasan .
    1. Kualitas produk
    Dengan kualitas produk, disini dimaksudkan bahwa produk sesuai dengan apa yang dijanjikan produsen dan apa yang secara wajar boleh diharapkan konsumen . konsumen berhak atas produk yang berkualitas , karena ia membayar untuk itu . dan bisnis berkewajiban untuk menyampaikan produk yang berkualitas , misalknya produk yang tidak kadarluarsa (bila ada batas waktu seperti obat obatan atau makanan ).
    2. harga
    harga merupakan buah hasil perhitungan faktor – faktor seperti biaya produksi , biaya investasi , promosi , pajak , ditambah tentu laba yang wajar . dala, sistem ekonomi pasar bebas , sepintas lalu rupanya harga yang adil adalah hasil akhir dari perkembangan daya pasar . kesan spontan adalah bahwa harga yang adil dihasilkan oleh tawar menawar sebagaimana dilakukan dipasar tradisional , dimana sipembeli sampai pada maksimum harga yang mau ia bayar dan sipenjual sampai pada minimum harga yang mau dipasang . tramsaksi itu terjadi bila maksimum dan minimum itu bertemu .
    3. pengemasan dan pemberiaan label
    pengemasan dan label dapat menimbulkan masalah etis . dalam konteks ini tuntutan etis yang pertama ialah bahwa informasi yang disebut pada kemasan itu benar . informasi yang kurang benar atau tidak pasti bukan saja merugikan konsumen tetapi pihak lain juga . disini contoh yang jelas ialah diskusi beberapa tahun lalu diamerika serikat tentang kemungkinan kelapa sawit bisa meningkatkan kadar kolestrol dalam darah . kalau hal itu disampaikan sebagai informasi yang benar , sedangkan pada kenyata’annya belum terbukti , negara kelapa sawit sangat dirugikan dan penyiaran informasi itu merupakan cara berbisnis yang tidak fair .
    kesimpulan
    masalah etis menjadi lebih berat lagi , karena dalam hal ini konsumen sendiri tidak berdaya . pada umumnya boleh dikatakan , konsumen sendiri juga mempunyai tranggung jawab . seperti sudah kita lihat sebelumnya, dari konsumen dapat diharapkan ia bersikap kritis dalam menilai produk yang akan dibeli dan dikonsumsi itulah kebenaran yang terkandung dalam pepatah kuno caveat emptor (hendaknya sipembeli barhati – hati).
    Contoh kasus
    peminajam bank
    untuk dapat membeli rumah , seorang karyawan muda mengambil pinjaman dari bank . setelah kredibilitas orang itu dipastikan . diadakan kontrak yang ditanda tangani oleh kedua belah pihak . bank mengikat diri membayar 80% dari harga rumah . jumlah uang itu dipinjamkan kepada nasabah dengan bunga tetap 8,5% pertahun . nasabah akan membayar bunga tiap 6 bulan , ditambah sebagian dari pinjaman . disamping itu nasabah mewajibkan diri mangambil asuransi pada bank itu untuk menutup resiko ia akan meninggal atau terkena penyakit , sebelum melunasi uangnya karena alasana lain , bank menjadi pemilik rumah dan berhak menjualnya agar memperoleh kembali modalnya . dalam kontrak ini hak dan kewajiban bank serta nasabah ditentukan dengan seksama .

    (sumber : J. Verstraeten/J.van gerwen , business en ethiek , hal. 100)

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    And another seventy-seven percent of the children who were suspended in maryland during the 2005-06 https://silveressay.com/ school year received no educational services while they were out of school